In a battery, the electrode usually refers to the location of redox reaction with electrolyte solution. The electrode can be divided into positive electrode and negative electrode. Generally, the cathode is positive electrode, and the electron is obtained. An electrode can be metal or nonmetal, as long as it can exchange electrons with the electrolyte solution. Scientists at Alfa Chemistry provide a reliable way to design and produce electrode materials. With the advanced technology platform and production capacity, rich production experience of our technical personnel, we can provide all kinds of electrode materials to meet the special demands of electrode manufacturing.
Figure 1. Various electrodes
Types of Electrode
According to the electrode material and the contact solution, the electrodes are basically divided into three kinds in the chemical field.
I Electrodes of the first kind
The primary characteristic of electrodes of the first kind is that it has only one phase interface. The electrode is in contact with its ion solution. The substances involved in the reaction exist in two phases.
This electrode comes in two forms:
i Metal electrodes
Metal electrodes are made by dipping metal into a solution containing the metal ions. Metals that have strong effects on water, such as Na and K, must be made into amalgam to become stable electrodes in water. Common metal electrodes are copper and zinc. Alfa Chemistry can provide related electrode materials, such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and its ion solution, sodium amalgam, potassium amalgam, etc.
ii Gas electrodes
Gas electrode includes hydrogen electrode, oxygen electrode and halogen electrode. Such electrode is made by dipping a platinum-blackened sheet into a solution of αH+=1 and passing it on to H2, O2, or halogen gas. This electrode has the advantage of small change of electromotive force with temperature. So the rule is that electrode potential of standard hydrogen electrode is zero. Alfa Chemistry provides chemically pure hydrogen, oxygen, halogen gas and the gas generator, and we also provide corresponding inert Pt electrodes.
Figure 2. Gas electrode
II Electrodes of the second kind
The electrode consists of metal and its insoluble compounds (salts, oxides, hydroxides, etc.) and electrolytes containing the negative ions of the insoluble compounds. Therefore, the substances involved in the electrode reaction exist in three phases, and the electrode has two phase interfaces. This kind of electrode is very close to ideal reversible electrode and is used as a reference electrode. The most common of these are calomel electrodes. Alfa Chemistry can provide metals and their insoluble salts or insoluble oxides such as mercury and saturated mercuric chloride solutions for such electrodes, and plain porcelain, saturated KCl, KCl crystals, etc.
Figure 3. Calomel electrode
III Electrodes of the third kind
The Electrodes of the third kind are also called redox electrodes. It is an electrode that performs a reaction by electronically transferring metal to a solution phase interface. The active substances of these electrodes are two ions with different electricity prices of one substance in the electrode liquid. Inert conductors, such as Pt and C, shall be used for REDOX electrodes. The quinone hydroquinone electrode is a kind of electrode commonly used in the field of biological medicine. It is sensitive to the REDOX reaction of amino acids and proteins and can be used to determine the PH value of biological liquids. Alfa Chemistry can provide chemically pure REDOX pairs and p-phenol for electrode use.
In the 21st century, two more types of electrodes were invented and put into use. Because of their obvious difference from the first three electrodes, they are also divided into Electrodes of the fourth kind and Electrodes of the fifth kind. And Alfa Chemistry is also committed to providing new electrode processing and production.
IV Electrodes of the fourth kind
The Electrodes of the fourth kind is the membrane electrode. These electrodes are usually composed of internal reference electrode, internal charge liquid and films with ion-selective response. There are glass film electrode, other solid film electrode, ion exchange membrane electrode, gas sensitive electrode and liquid film electrode. Its main characteristic is that no electron transfer occurs throughout the process. We can provide Nafion membrane, Nafion membrane solution and related accessories of membrane electrode.
Figure 4. Membrane electrode
V Electrodes of the fifth kind
The Electrodes of the fifth kind is also called the embedded electrode. As the name suggests, this electrode will undergo an intercalation reaction. The current reaction on the electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries, which are used extensively in mobile phones, laptops and other electronic products, is intercalation reaction. Such electrodes can improve the conductivity of the battery and increase the battery's capacity, making them the most popular electrode type in current electronic products.
Figure 5. Embedded electrode
Other electrode common material
Alfa Chemistry also provides common materials for the production of most electrodes, including conductive carbon black, platinum black, PTFE waterproof emulsion, cathode powder, carbon paper and carbon cloth, etc.
Figure 6. Conductive carbon black
Alfa Chemistry is committed to providing different types of electrodes. We have excellent scientists and advanced production equipment, and we guarantee the quality and performance of our products. Please contact us to discuss your requirements in detail.