In organic chemistry, carbonyls are a functional group that consists of carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom. The carbonyl-containing compound is commonly referred to as a carbonyl compound. Carbonyl group is a structural feature of many different types of compounds and carbonyl compound is one of the several organic compounds classes that are common as part of many larger functional groups. The carbonyl compound exists in carbon dioxide and methanol, representing the extreme high and low levels of carbonyl carbon oxidation, respectively. In between, there are carbonyl compounds, including aldehydes and ketones and their derivatives (esters, amides, anhydrides, acid halides).
Alfa Chemistry can offer a wide variety of carbonyl compounds including alcohols, amino alcohols, epoxides, ethers, ortho esters, and phenols.
Agriculture: Cinnamaldehyde is an organic compound with the carbonyl group. Cinnamaldehyde can be used as a fungicide. It is typically applied to the root systems of over 40 different crops. Its low toxicity and well-known properties make it ideal for agriculture. Cinnamaldehyde is an effective insecticide, and is also known to repel animals, such as cats and dogs. It has been tested as a safe and effective insecticide against mosquito larvae. A concentration of 29 ppm of cinnamaldehyde can kill half of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae within 24 hours. Trans-cinnamaldehyde works as a potent fumigant and practical repellant for adult mosquitos.
Pharmaceutical industry: Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid with carbonyl group occurs in many plants. Tartaric acid and its derivatives have a plethora of uses in pharmaceutical industry. For example, it has been used in the production of effervescent salts, and it also can be used to improve the taste of oral medications by combined with citric acid. The potassium antimonyl derivative of the acid known as tartar emetic is included, in small doses, in cough syrup as an expectorant.
Synthesis chemistry: A carboxylic acid usually contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH), and the general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, in which R group is refers to the rest of the molecule. The most widely practiced reactions in synthesis chemistry are the reactions converting carboxylic acids into esters, amides, carboxylate salts, acid chlorides, and alcohols. As with all carbonyl compounds, the protons on the α-carbon are labile due to keto–enol tautomerization. Thus, the α-carbon is easily halogenated in the halogenation. The Schmidt reaction converts carboxylic acids to amines. The Dakin–West reaction converts an amino acid to the corresponding amino ketone. In the Barbier–Wieland degradation, the carboxylic acid on an aliphatic chain with a simple methylene bridge at the alpha position can have the chain shortened by one carbon. The inverse procedure is the Arndt–Eistert synthesis, where an acid is converted into acyl halide.
Figure.1. The Dakin–West reaction.