Vat Dyes

Vat dyes are a class of dyes that are classified by their method of application. Vat dyeing refers to the process of dyeing in a vat or bucket. Most dyes, such as fiber-reactive dyes, direct dyes, and acid dyes can be used in a vat dyeing. Cotton, wool, and other fibers can be dyed with vat dyes.

The original vat dye is indigo, once obtained from plants but now produced synthetically. Indigo was first recovered from the water-soluble glucoside in plants, and then the insoluble blue product was dissolved in wooden vat by a process later known as vatting. This is the origin of the name of vat dye.


Vat dyes are the most important dyes for dyeing on cotton and cellulose fibers. They have excellent fastness, including washing, light, chlorine and rubbing fastness. The main use of Vat Blue 1 is to dye cotton yarns, which is mainly used for the production of denim for jeans. A small amount of Vat Blue 1 is used to dye wool and silk. Vat Blue 1 is an indigo derivative that is also used as a colorant. About 20,000 tons of Vat Blue 1are produced annually, mainly for the production of jeans. It is also used as a food coloring agent.

Vat Dyes

Classification of Vat Dyes

  • Anthraquinone vat dyes: The anthraquinoneacridones are capable of producing hues from orange to blue and can be prepared, for example, by reaction of sulfonic acid with carboxylic acid which produces Vat Red 35.

  • Vat Dyes

  • Fused ring polycyclic vat dyes: A large number of vat dyes belong to the category of fused ring polycyclic vat dyes, which contains carbonyl groups. The color, constitution and theory of color of these structures have received attention.

  • Vat Dyes

  • Indigoid vat dyes: Vat dye chemistry would not be completed if without indigo, whose structure was elucidated in 1883. Indigo is applied as its water-soluble form, produced by the reduction with sodium dithionite, and it is still used extensively for the dyeing of denim.

Alfa Chemistry

For product inquiries, please use our online system or send an email to .

Alfa Chemistry
Inquiry Basket
Verification code
* I hereby give my consent that I may receive marketing e-mails with information on existing and new services from this company. I know that I can opt-out from receiving such e-mails at any time or by using the link which will be provided in each marketing e-mail.