Organic Silicon Compounds

Organic Phosphine Compounds

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Like carbon, silicon atoms are generally four-coordinate when compounds are formed. They have lower energetic barriers to distortion compared to the carbon analogues because of the bigger atomic radius. However, silicon is more reminiscent of its heavier congeners due to lack of stability of its multiple bonds and the limited propensity to expand its coordination sphere to five or even six. The study of the stereochemistry of organic silicon compounds always carried out by observations of stereochemical differences rather than similarities between analogous molecules containing silicon or carbon.

Organosilicon compounds are key organometallic compounds containing at least one silicon-carbon bond. They are weak nucleophiles compared with other organometallic compounds because the carbon-silicon bond in organosilicon compounds is only weakly polarized. Generally they can be divided into two categories, polymers and monomeric compounds. The hydrolysis or methanolysis of monomeric organohalosilanes followed by polycondensation can obtain the polymeric silicones. Thus silicone production becomes the largest consumer of monomeric silanes. In addition, from their structure, polymeric silicones are also economic products because organosilicon units are linked by Si-O-Si bonds.

Figure 1 the application of organosilicon  compounds (<em>the  pictures are from website</em>)Figure 1 the application of organosilicon compounds


Organosilicon compounds are also widely used in many important fields apart from silicone chemistry, such as materials science and in metallurgy. They show different properties, for using as precursors for silicon carbide and silicon nitride coatings by chemical vapor deposition, or as catalyst components in olefin polymerization. In addition, they also used in organic reactions for the pharmaceutical industry as auxiliary materials and protecting groups, or as protective agents for buildings.

For examples, in the presence of a palladium catalyst and a Lewis base activator such as a fluoride or hydroxyl ion, organosilicon compounds can react with a wide variety of organic electrophiles to produce the corresponding coupled products. This reaction showed good scope and functional group tolerance, affording series of target diynes, enynes, arylacetylenes, alkenylarenes, biaryls and allylarenes and so on.

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