Photovoltaic is a new kind of generation system which uses solar cell semiconductor materials to convert sunlight radiant energy directly into electric energy. And it can be operated in two ways, including independent operation and grid operation. Organic photovoltaic cells, as the name suggests, are the solar cells that make up the core of organic materials. Organic photovoltaic cells are available in a wide variety of materials, which can be broadly divided into four categories, including small-molecule solar cell materials, macromolecular solar cell materials, d-a system materials and organic-inorganic hybrid system materials. Semiconductor materials are mainly composed of photosensitive organic matters and the photovoltaic effect produces voltage to generate electricity, realizing the effect of solar power generation. The above-mentioned organic materials with photosensitive properties have conjugate structure and conductive properties, such materials as phthalocyanine compounds, porphyrin and cyanine. Organic photovoltaic cells can be divided into elemental structure, p-n structure and dye-sensitized nanocrystalline structure, according to semiconductor materials. They have the advantages of low cost, thin thickness, light quality, simple manufacturing process, and being made into large area flexible devices, so which have broad development and application prospect.
Figure 1.Examples of organic photovoltaic materials
Energy field: When natural gas, coal, oil and other non-renewable energy sources are in short supply, energy problems increasingly become the bottleneck of international social and economic development and more and more countries begin to implement the "Sunshine Plan", to develop solar energy resources and seek new impetus for economic development. As the raw materials of organic photovoltaic cells are widely used, cheap and have high environmental stability, the organic photovoltaic cells are widely concerned and applied. For example, large power-hungry places, this multi-level power supply system can not only ensure the normal operation of society, but also make full use of clean energy.
Environment protection: The main components of waste batteries are manganese, mercury, zinc, chromium and other heavy metals. When they are buried deep under the ground, their heavy metal components will overflow with the leachate, resulting in groundwater and soil pollution, which will seriously endanger human health if accumulated for a long time. The solar energy used in OPV is inexhaustible, which is a real sense of "green" power since the solar energy is environmentally friendly and it greatly reduces the risk of environmental pollution.
1. Zhang TH; et al. (2011). New Progress in Study of Organic Solar Cell Materials. Chinese Journal of Organic Chemistry.