Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces
Lee M, Kim H, Seo J, et al
Applied Surface Science, 2018, 427: 517-524
In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.
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